“Jihad” By Sir Thomas W. Arnold

https://www.bismikaallahuma.org/history/jihad-by-sir-thomas-w-arnold/

…  our present times, the term ‘Jihad‘ has generally been used to imply “killing the opponent (non-Muslim) …  extraordinary talent the thesis that the basic meaning of “jihad“, is: “the using or exerting one’s utmost power, effort, endeavor or …  is due to the later Muslim legalists and commentators that jihad came to be interpreted as a religious war waged against unbelievers, but …